Extraction of petroleum – wikipedia advanced drainage systems atlanta

Geologists use surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs. Advanced drainage systems headquarters The “classic” method includes making an underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures under the ground . Irrigation drainage systems However, “passive” methods that extract information from naturally-occurring seismic waves are also used.

Other instruments such as and are also used in the search for petroleum.

Groundwater drainage systems Extracting crude oil normally starts with drilling wells into an underground reservoir. Advanced drainage systems investor relations When an oil well has been tapped, a geologist (known on the rig as the “mudlogger”) will note its presence. Sustainable urban drainage systems case study Such a “mudlogger” is known to be sitting on the rig. Private drainage systems Historically in the United States, some existed where the oil rose naturally to the surface, but most of these fields have long since been used up, except in certain places in Alaska. Land drainage systems Often many wells (called multilateral wells) are drilled into the same reservoir, to ensure that the extraction rate will be economically viable. Advanced drainage systems atlanta And some wells ( secondary wells) may be used to pump , , or various gas mixtures into the reservoir to raise or maintain the reservoir pressure so as to maintain an economic extraction rate. Advanced drainage systems buxton nd Drilling [ ]

The oil well is created by drilling a long hole into the earth with an . Natural drainage systems A steel pipe (casing) is placed in the hole, to provide structural integrity to the newly-drilled well bore. Advanced drainage systems pipeline Holes are then made in the base of the well to enable oil to pass into the bore. Advanced drainage systems vicksburg ms Finally a collection of valves called a “” is fitted to the top, the valves regulate pressures and control flow. Advanced drainage systems ceo Oil extraction and recovery [ ] Primary recovery [ ]

During the primary recovery stage, reservoir drive comes from a number of natural mechanisms. Advanced drainage systems orlando fl These include: natural water displacing oil downward into the well, expansion of the natural gas at the top of the reservoir, expansion of gas initially dissolved in the crude oil, and gravity drainage resulting from the movement of oil within the reservoir from the upper to the lower parts where the wells are located. Install drainage systems Recovery factor during the primary recovery stage is typically 5-15%.

While the underground pressure in the oil reservoir is sufficient to force the oil to the surface, all that is necessary is to place a complex arrangement of (the ) on the to connect the well to a network for storage and processing. Advanced drainage systems reviews Sometimes pumps, such as and (ESPs), are used to bring the oil to the surface; these are known as artificial lifting mechanisms. Advanced drainage systems inc ohio Secondary recovery [ ]

Over the lifetime of the well, the pressure falls and at some point there is insufficient underground pressure to force the oil to the surface. Advanced drainage systems jackson ms After natural reservoir drive diminishes, secondary recovery methods are applied. Advanced drainage systems eagle grove iowa They rely on the supply of external energy into the reservoir in the form of injecting fluids to increase reservoir pressure, hence replacing or increasing the natural reservoir drive with an artificial drive. Sustainable urban drainage systems suds Secondary recovery techniques increase the reservoir’s pressure by , and , which injects , or some other gas into the bottom of an active well, reducing the overall density of fluid in the wellbore. Sustainable drainage systems a guide for developers Typical recovery factor from water-flood operations is about 30%, depending on the properties of the oil and the characteristics of the reservoir rock. Pipeline drainage systems On average, the recovery factor after primary and secondary oil recovery operations is between 35 and 45%. What is sustainable urban drainage systems Enhanced recovery [ ]

Thermally enhanced oil recovery methods (TEOR) are tertiary recovery techniques that heat the oil, reducing its viscosity and making it easier to extract. Advanced drainage systems careers is the most common form of TEOR, and it is often done with a plant. Advanced drainage systems ipo This type of cogeneration plant uses a to generate , and the waste heat is used to produce steam, which is then injected into the reservoir. Surface and subsurface drainage systems This form of recovery is used extensively to increase oil extraction in the , which yields a very heavy oil, yet accounts for ten percent of the United States’ oil extraction. Advanced drainage systems emitter [ ] (In-situ burning) is another form of TEOR, but instead of steam, some of the oil is burned to heat the surrounding oil.

Occasionally, () are injected to alter the surface tension between the water and the oil in the reservoir, mobilizing oil which would otherwise remain in the reservoir as residual oil.

Tertiary recovery allows another 5% to 15% of the reservoir’s oil to be recovered. Advanced drainage systems stock symbol In some California fields, steam injection has doubled or even tripled the oil reserves and ultimate oil recovery. Advanced drainage systems phone number For example, see , California’s largest oilfield.

Tertiary recovery begins when secondary oil recovery is not enough to continue adequate extraction, but only when the oil can still be extracted . Sustainable urban drainage systems design manual This depends on the of the extraction method and the current . Advanced drainage systems sebring fl When prices are high, previously unprofitable wells are brought back into use, and when they are low, extraction is curtailed.

The use of microbial treatments is another tertiary recovery method. Advanced drainage systems 4 in Special blends of the microbes are used to treat and break down the hydrocarbon chain in oil, making the oil easy to recover. Advanced drainage systems stock It is also more economical versus other conventional methods. Advanced drainage systems brazil in In some states such as Texas, there are tax incentives for using these microbes in what is called a secondary tertiary recovery. Advanced drainage systems Very few companies supply these, however, companies like Bio Tech, Inc. Advanced drainage systems ohio have proven very successful in waterfloods across Texas. Advanced drainage systems heidelberg ontario [ ] Recovery rates and factors [ ]

The amount of oil that is recoverable is determined by a number of factors, including the permeability of the rocks, the strength of natural drives (the gas present, pressure from adjacent water or gravity), and the viscosity of the oil. Sustainable urban drainage systems When the reservoir rocks are “tight” such as in shale, oil generally cannot flow through, but when they are permeable such as in sandstone, oil flows freely. Advanced drainage systems mendota il Estimated ultimate recovery [ ]

Although recovery of a well cannot be known with certainty until the well ceases production, petroleum engineers often determine an (EUR) based on decline rate projections years into the future. Sustainable drainage systems definition Various models, mathematical techniques, and approximations are used.

EUR is difficult to predict, and it is possible to choose recovery methods that tend to underestimate decline of the well beyond that which is reasonable. Advanced drainage systems kansas city See also [ ]